Understanding Baby Boomers, Gen X, Gen Y and Gen Z

Different generations represented in a picture. [iStockphoto]

In today’s society, we often hear terms like “Baby Boomers,” “Generation X,” “Millennials,” and “Generation Z,” which refer to different generations of individuals born during specific periods.

These generational cohorts play a crucial role in shaping society, influencing trends, and passing down values and traditions from one generation to the next.

TNX delves into the definitions, origins, defining characteristics, and notable figures of each generation in Kenya, showcasing the fascinating relationships and contributions that connect them.

The Baby Boom generation (pre-independence to the 1960s)

Its oldest members were part of the spike in fertility that began in 1946, right after the end of World War II. Its youngest members were born in 1964. This generation earned its name due to the significant increase in birth rates during that period.

Baby Boomers in Kenya experienced the country’s independence and witnessed its growth and development. They value hard work, discipline, and loyalty. Baby Boomers feel younger people do not have as strong a work ethic as they do, and that makes doing their work harder.

They enjoyed stability in terms of both work and family and being active both physically and mentally. Despite having adapted to a world during technological evolution, they are less dependent on smartphones than the next generations. To work and produce was their philosophy of life.

The Pioneering Generation laid the foundation for modern Kenyan art, with artistes like Samwel Wanjau, Jak Katarikawe, and Elimo Njau exploring traditional and contemporary themes through their paintings and sculptures.

Pioneering musicians such as Fundi Konde, Daudi Kabaka, and Fadhili William were instrumental in popularising the Benga music style, blending traditional Kenyan rhythms with Western influences.

Notable Kenyan celebrities from this generation include former Prime Minister Raila Odinga.

Generation X: Independence Generation (1960s to 1970s)

Born between 1965 and 1980, Generation X follows the Baby Boomers and would now be between the ages of 43 and 58. This generation is largely made up of the children of the Baby Boom generation. The exact origin of the name is unknown, but many believe that the “X” refers to an unknown variable or to a desire not to be defined. They were born shortly after a significant decline in fertility occurred after the birth control pill first went on the market.

They grew up during a time of social and technological advancement. In the 80s and 90s, people were united. The whole community would rally to take children to school or help during harvesting. By the millennial age, people had become individualistic.

Generation X individuals are known for their adaptability, resilience, and independence. Gen X is viewed as independent, as many grew up taking care of themselves due to both parents working and learning to become resourceful, responsible, and self-sufficient. They value work-life balance significantly more than their predecessors.

Generation X artistes like Peterson Kamwathi, Michael Soi, and Cyrus Kabiru brought a fresh perspective to Kenyan art, incorporating contemporary themes and experimenting with diverse mediums.

Artistes like Eric Wainaina, Nameless, and Suzanna Owiyo gained popularity during this time, introducing a fusion of Kenyan and international music styles and addressing social issues through their lyrics. Journalist Julie Gichuru also belongs to this generation.


Also known as Generation Y, Millennials were born between 1981 and 1996 and are now, in 2023, aged between 42 and 27 years. They came of age during the rapid expansion of the internet and witnessed the transition to a digital era.

This group got the name “Millennials” because the oldest of them were entering adulthood at the turn of the new millennium (2000). Millennials prefer work that uses their creativity, leverages their talent, and makes an impact on others. They choose work that they are passionate about.

Early versions of Wi-Fi were available starting in 1990, which means that millennials grew up with the internet and have watched technology like virtual reality and artificial intelligence grow from their early stages.

They saw the invention of Google Search as well as social media and are relied on by the older generation to troubleshoot when they cannot figure out how to start up WhatsApp.

Often stereotyped as being impatient, demanding, and feeling entitled, Millennials endured a lot. They entered the workforce during the great recession and found few jobs available. As a result, they lead a career-focused life.

They are tech-savvy, diverse, and socially conscious. Millennial artistes such as Michael Musyoka, Paul Onditi, and Peterson Kamwathi continued to push artistic boundaries, engaging with digital media, installations, and conceptual art. This generation witnessed the rise of artistes like Sauti Sol, Nyashinski, and Octopizzo, who brought a fresh sound to Kenyan music, blending genres like Afro-pop, Hip Hop, and R&B. Notable Kenyan Millennials include actress and social media influencer Brenda Wairimu and entrepreneur and philanthropist Michelle Ntalami.

Generation Z

Born between 1997 and the early 2010s, Generation Z is the youngest generation in our discussion. Often referred to as “digital natives,” they were raised in a world of smartphones, social media, and instant connectivity.

Social media has allowed them to express their thoughts on political and cultural issues before they were old enough to vote. Gen Z tends to value salary less than every other generation. They will choose a less-paying job if it means it is less boring.

They are also socially conscious and dedicated to social responsibility.  Gen Z does not only care about the work they do; it is important they feel good about it and who they do it for.

They are known as a generation of contradictions, they may value autonomy over their work schedule and are more likely to reject company cultures that require a strict 9-to-5 work schedule.

Generation Z musicians such as Bensoul, Nadia Mukami, and Ethic Entertainment have made waves with their genre-blending styles, incorporating elements of Afro-pop, dancehall, and Gengetone. Generation Z individuals exhibit creativity, entrepreneurial spirit, and a desire for change.

Relationships between generations

Generational diversity is a remarkable aspect of society. The older generations, like Baby Boomers, can provide valuable wisdom, guidance, and historical context to the younger ones.

Meanwhile, the younger generations, such as Generation Z, bring fresh perspectives, technological expertise, and a drive for innovation that can help shape the future.

By appreciating the connections and differences between these generations, we can foster intergenerational understanding, celebrate our collective heritage, and collectively shape a brighter future for all.

So, whether you find inspiration in the tenacity of Baby Boomers, the adaptability of Generation X, the social consciousness of Millennials, or the innovation of Generation Z, appreciate that the strength of a society lies in the interplay and collaboration between these diverse generations.


Related Articles